The human being is done in a very reasonable way. But evolution does not create perfection, only produces functions, believes anthropologist at Princeton University, Alan Mann. With the backdrop of a large number of organs that function harmoniously, deficiencies exist in our body as well. And most of them are associated with the complex process of evolution.The food we eat and the air we breathe enter the body by the same path. The trachea and the esophagus intersect. To prevent the introduction of food into the trachea, the epiglottis, a special organ, closes the opening of the larynx reflexively when swallowed. But sometimes it does not work fast enough. If you talk and laugh while eating, the food can slip and enter the respiratory tract. Sometimes this leads to a lethal result.
By the way, babies can swallow and breathe at the same time, but over time they lose this amazing ability.
How would it be better? Take, for example, the whales. Your larynx is in the breathing opening, in the upper part of the head. If we move the larynx to the nose, we can have two independent tubes. The drawback of this solution: we could not talk anymore.
2. We only have one row of teeth, and we even have some more
We only have one set of teeth that should last us a lifetime. But, according to statistics, very few people can keep it complete until old age. And the teeth are not renewed.
What’s more, wisdom teeth are usually useless. They were necessary for our ancestors, with their longer jaws, where they fit without any problem. Now, these teeth do not help us in the process of chewing food, it’s just a rudiment, just like the coccyx.
How would it be better? Depending on the species, a shark can have 4 to 28 rows of teeth in the mouth, and the loss of some of them is not a problem. But, to accommodate more teeth, the person’s mouth should be larger.
3. The retina in our eyes is upside down
The cells of the photoreceptors in the retina are similar to turned microphones. This position causes light to travel along the entire length of each cell, as well as through blood and tissues to reach the lens.
Due to the imperfection of this design, the retina tends to detach itself from the supporting tissues, and this is one of the main causes of blindness. For the same reason, we have a blind spot : an area that is insensitive to light.
How would it be better? In many representatives of fauna, the structure of the eye is organized in a different way. For example, in the retina of squids and octopuses photoreceptor cells are turned towards the light source, which makes the disposition of their eyes much more “logical” than in humans. So it is worth taking his example and simply turning the retina.
4. The unprotected stomach
The whole body, face and hands can withstand heavy loads and severe blows. For example, the brain is protected by a solid skull. Only the abdominal cavity, filled with vital organs, is covered by a thin layer of muscles. Therefore, it is enough to fall ill for a person to suffer damage to internal organs.
How would it be better? Our body can be compared to a castle that is surrounded by thick walls, but in the middle there is a bridge, covered with a board fence. To prevent hernias and improve the protection of the abdominal cavity it would be good to increase the amount of ribs.
5. Our spine should not be straight
Everything that people wear above the waist creates pressure on the spine that, as a result, twists, creating an additional burden on all internal organs. Hence chronic fatigue and back pain. Even with an active lifestyle, over time, the spine is “weathered” by the burdens.
To keep the body and head upright, the spine should not be straight, but curved forward, that is, have a pronounced form of S. The problem is that there would be many side effects by curvatures of this type, for example , greater pressure on the internal organs and blood vessels, their compression and displacement.
How would it be better? Bruce Latimer, of the University of Case, in Cleveland, believes that the ideal spine is that of dogs: a continuous arc that goes from the sacrum to the neck. There is only one drawback: to maintain the weight of the head and not fall forward, we would have to get back on all fours.